Indication for use of Blood and Blood Products
|INDICATIONS||FIRST CHOICE||SECOND CHOICE|
|Warfarin Poisoning||Plasma||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Anemia||Red Cell Concentrate||Whole Blood|
|Parvovirus||Plasma||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Renal Disease||Intravenous Colloid||Plasma|
|Liver Disease||Intravenous Colloid||Plasma|
|DIC||Cryoprecipitate||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Anti-Vitamin K||Plasma||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Intoxication||Plasma||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Hemophilia A||Cryoprecipitate||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Hemophilia B||Plasma||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Von Willebrands||Cryoprecipitate||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Factor X Deficiency||Plasma||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Factor X1 Hemophilia C||Plasma||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Disfibrinogenemia||Cryoprecipitate||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Hypofibrinogenemia||Cryoprecipitate||Fresh Frozen Plasma|
|Prothrombin Deficiency||Cryoprecipitate||Platelet Rich Plasma|
|Thrombocytopenia||Platelet Concentrate||Fresh Whole Blood|
This product can be stored at 1-6 °C, a common household refrigerator is adequate. Packed red blood cells (pRBC) should be gently agitated daily to allow adequate mixing of the red blood cells and the storage solution. This product expires 35 days from the date of collection.
The pRBc may be warmed to room temperature. Allow the blood to sit at room temperature for 30-60 minutes. Mix 40 times.
or ... warm the bag in a water bath; water temp. at 37°C, in a zip lock bag. If a water bath is not available then warm the blood bag in a zip lock bag in a sink with warm water, use a thermometer to insure the temperature is 37°C. Mix 40 times.
Once the pRBC has been warmed, insert the bloodline filter into one of the ports on the blood bag. Hang the blood bag and begin administering at the desired rate. Do not warm in a microwave because of the metal clips on the bag.
The pRBC can be viscous and if they do not flow freely through the blood administration set line then 0.9% saline can be added. This can be accomplished with the use of a sampling site coupler. Simply insert this coupler into one of the ports of the blood bag and insert a needle to transfer the 0.9% saline. The 0.9% saline should be warmed to 37°C before injecting into the coupler. Do not warm greater than 37°C or lysis of pRBC could occur. To minimize the risk of bacterial proliferation in pRBC and plasma products the transfusion should be completed within 4 hours.
This product should be transfused at a dosage of 6-10 ml/kg and a rate of 4-6 ml/min. The initial rate should be slower for the first 15-30 minutes to allow for early detection of severe transfusion reactions. Suggested rate is 0.25 ml/kg/hour.
This step may have to be omitted if transfusion is required on an emergency basis.
Do not use Lactated Ringers Solution, Dextrose or Plasmalyte, 0.9% saline is the only compatible fluid. The other solutions can cause lysis of the red blood cells.
*It is very important to monitor the animal during any transfusion for severe transfusion reactions. If the animal has a reaction, stop the infusion immediately and administer hydrocortisone 100 mg IV. Usually with the first transfusion, there should not be a reaction. For subsequent transfusions, pre medication may be administered 15 minutes prior to infusion of the whole blood.
Benadryl (conc. 50mg/ml) 2mg/kg diluted in 2 cc saline given slowly over 5 minutes, followed by 100 mg hydrocortisone given slowly over 5 minutes.
*Crossmatching is especially important when repeated transfusions are to be performed.
Reference: Cornell Veterinary Medicine
LifeStream Animal Blood Bank Inc. has compiled this information and to the best of our knowledge, it is accurate. However, each case is different and the attending veterinarian may have to alter the procedures in the best interest of each patient.